ADHD Treatment

Treatment for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically involves a combination of methods, including counseling (psychotherapy), medications, and lifestyle changes. Additionally, maintaining a healthy diet—free from sugar, dyes, and preservatives—ensuring proper sleep, and engaging in plenty of exercise can help reduce symptoms and increase the effectiveness of behavioral therapy or medication in both children and adults with ADHD.
With proper treatment and behavior therapy, children with ADHD can grow up to be happy, successful adults.

What Should I Do If I Suspect My Child Has ADHD?

If you suspect your child may have ADHD, the best thing you can do is document his/her symptoms – i.e. when they arise, how often they arise, and what they are in detail. Learn about the condition, possible causes, typical ADHD symptoms, treatment options and then have your child evaluated by a qualified mental health professional.

What is ADHD?

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral condition that affects millions of children annually. For many, this condition begins in childhood and persists well into adulthood. However, for others, it appears to naturally “fade out” or improve once the individual reaches adulthood. There is no specific test used to diagnose ADHD, leading some experts to believe it is overdiagnosed, while others think it is underdiagnosed.

  • How Common is ADHD? ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorders.
  • Are Boys or Girls Most Frequently Diagnosed with ADHD? Boys are three times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than girls. However, this discrepancy isn’t necessarily because girls are less susceptible; rather, ADHD symptoms present differently in girls and can be more easily overlooked.

What are the Symptoms of ADHD?

ADHD symptoms vary from child to child; however, there are some common symptoms that children with ADHD tend to experience. For instance, children with ADHD typically have difficulty paying attention to details, both at home and at school. They also tend to be extremely active or hyperactive. Furthermore, children with ADHD are usually exhibit more impulsive behaviors than children who do not have the condition. Lastly, some children may exhibit one or two of these symptoms, while others may display all three.

Other symptoms associated with ADHD can include poor self-esteem, a lack of confidence, low grades or poor academic performance, as wells as short-lived and/or volatile or dysfunctional relationships.

Note: It is normal for children to exhibit one, two, or even all three of these behaviors from time to time. However, if these behaviors persist beyond the typical timeframe, or if your child continues to exhibit these behaviors long after their peers have stopped, it may be time to have your child evaluated by a trained health professional.

To be diagnosed with ADHD, a child must exhibit the following symptoms for at least six months and to a greater extent than other children of the same age. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), your child may have ADHD if he or she falls into one or more of the following three subtypes:

  1. Hyperactive-Impulsive
    • Exhibits six or more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness
    • Exhibits less than six symptoms of inattentiveness
  1. Inattentive
    • Exhibits six or more symptoms of inattentiveness
    • Exhibits less than six symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsiveness
  1. Combined (Hyperactive-Impulsive and Inattentive)
    • Exhibits six or more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness
    • Exhibits six or more symptoms of inattentiveness


Symptoms of hyperactivity
  • Squirming in one’s seat or fidgeting with one’s hands or feet
  • An inability to remain seated when it’s expected (during meals, storytime, etc.)
  • Running and/or climbing when it’s inappropriate
  • Problems with playing quietly and/or completing calmer activities
  • Being always on-the-go
  • Constantly touching and/or playing with anything within sight
  • Talking non-stop – even when asked to be quiet
Symptoms of impulsiveness
  • Is extremely impatient
  • Blurting out answers before the question has been completely asked
  • Displaying “unchecked” emotions and/or performing irrational or impulsive acts – without regard for the consequence
  • Has a hard time waiting for things he/she wants or waiting for his/her turn
  • Frequently interrupts conversations or activities
Symptoms of inattention
  • Does not pay attention to details and makes careless mistakes on schoolwork
  • Has a hard time paying attention for long periods of time – i.e. during tasks or play
  • Gets bored with tasks quickly and bounces from activity to activity
  • Does not appear to be listening when spoken to directly
  • Frequently daydreams
  • Becomes easily confused
  • Is slow at completing tasks
  • Has problems completing tasks on time or by the deadline
  • Does not follow instructions
  • Has poor organization skills
  • Has a hard time grasping new concepts
  • Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental concentration (puzzles, reading, etc.)
  • Tends to misplace things -(toys, assignments, backpacks, keys, pencils, books, coats, etc.)
  • Is easily distracted
  • Has a hard time processing information quickly and accurately

What Causes ADHD?

The exact cause of ADHD is unknown and may depend on the child, which is why experts disagree on the possible causes of it. However, studies suggest that ADHD stems from a combination of genetics/biology, neurological (brain) trauma, poor nutrition – too much sugar, dyes, and salt, not enough sleep, and/or environment.

Researchers have begun to study the relationship between ADHD and nicotine use and alcohol abuse during pregnancy, biology, brain injury, and food additives -i.e. artificial colors and preservatives more in-depth. Moreover, neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain of a child with ADHD operates differently than his/her peers, specifically in reference to neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, and adrenaline) function. But regardless of the cause of it, ADHD usually first appears during early childhood, between 3 and 6 years old.

How is ADHD Diagnosed?

All children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to sit still from time-to-time. Determining what is considered normal can be challenging because a child’s maturity, temperament, and energy vary based on a child’s personality and level of self-awareness. A parent may be the first to notice a child is developing differently from other children his/her age. Or, it may be the child’s teacher(s) that first notice that your child struggles to follow rules, or frequently “spaces out” in the classroom.

As mentioned above, there is currently no definitive test that can diagnose a child with ADHD. Therefore, a licensed health professional (child psychologist, child therapist, pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or child clinical social worker) must fully evaluate your child – i.e. his/her behavior before he/she can diagnose him/her with ADHD.

In addition, before an official ADHD diagnosis can be made, this health professional will need to rule out any other medical conditions that could be contributing to your child’s ADHD-like symptoms. Other medical conditions like depression, anxiety disorders, sleep deprivation, learning disabilities, tic disorders, and other behavioral problems that may be confused with, or appear alongside ADHD. In fact, most children with ADHD have at least one other developmental or behavioral problem.

What type of treatment is best for ADHD?

ADHD is a chronic condition and treatment will not cure ADHD. Approximately 50% of children diagnosed with ADHD will have trouble paying attention, and/or behave impulsively – even as adults. The good news is that with behavioral therapy children learn to control negative behaviors and grow up to be happy, successful adults.

An ADHD therapy treatment plan will typically involve a multifaceted approach, including prescription medication, supplements, talk therapy, cognitive therapy, and/or behavioral interventions as well as adjustments in daily habits. This strategy is designed to equip both child and family members with new skills to effectively handle ADHD symptoms. It’s also important to understand that your child will require extra guidance, structure, and understanding from both you and their teacher(s). Often, by the time your child is diagnosed, blame, frustration, and even anger may have accumulated within the family or within the classroom environment. Therefore, you may need to participate in parenting therapy, ADHD coaching or possibly anger management therapy in order to develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to your child.

Keep in mind that if ADHD is not properly treated, it can negatively affect your child’s academic performance and friendships. In addition, parents of children with ADHD are often tired and frustrated. Why? Because this condition can cause each family member to experience a high level of stress at times. Get the support you need to ensure you can help your child when they need it. Many therpists provide individual therapy or support group therapy for parents mananaging complex behavioral disorders.  

Parent Training for ADHD Children

As a parent, there are many ways to help your ADHD child be better organized, follow instructions and improve their social skills. In fact, the best way to combat the effects of your child’s ADHD is to be vigilant and proactive. For young children (4-5 years of age) with ADHD, cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly training for parents, is recommended as the first line of treatment before medication is tried.

Parenting Tools for Children with ADHD:

  • Time Management: Post a schedule of tasks, such as homework, sports, TV, family time, etc., at a central location in the home and try to follow the same routine daily.
  • Organized Environment: Ensure that the house is always tidy and neat. Designate specific places for everyday items such as clothing, backpacks, toys, and food.
  • Teach Organization: Help your child organize their school materials and supplies, and emphasize the importance of writing down instructions for homework assignments.
  • Simplify Instructions: Multi-step instructions can be difficult for children with ADHD to process. Be clear and consistent, and use words that your child can understand. 
  • Practice Social Skills: As a parent, it is important to model self-control, compassion, as well as good listening and communication skills. Children with ADHD often struggle with impulse control and may miss social cues, which can negatively impact their relationships.
  • Reward Positive Behavior: Children with ADHD often receive a great deal of criticism but not as much praise. Praise will capture your child’s attention, so make sure to do it when warranted.

Can Adults Have ADHD?

Yes! But, unfortunately, many adults with this condition aren’t even aware they have it. Why not? Well, because adult ADHD symptoms tend to be more varied, and not as clear cut, like those in children.

What Are Some Adult ADHD Symptoms?

It’s important to highlight that although most studies and articles focus on child ADHD, adults can also be diagnosed with late-onset ADHD or childhood ADHD may persist into adulthood. Adult ADHD symptoms can lead to a host of problems, such as dysfunctional or unhealthy relationships, poor attendance or productivity at work, low grades at school, and/or dismal of self-esteem or self-confidence.

Other examples of adult ADHD symptoms include:

  • Difficulty at school – i.e. low grades, making and keeping friends, etc.
  • Problems at work – i.e. productivity problems, quality issues, low attendance, etc.
  • Failed relationships – i.e. cheating/adultery, impulsiveness, poor communication, lack of detail, hyperactivity, etc.
  • Problems with organization – messy work, forgetting where one places things/problems finding things, etc.
  • Inability to maintain a job or keeping appointments
  • Difficulty with daily tasks like getting out of bed, leaving for work, and/or arriving at appointments on time
  • Chronic procrastination
  • Restlessness and an inability to multitask
  • A desire to fix things “quickly,” rather than taking one’s time and doing it right
  • Frequent speeding tickets and/or a history of traffic violations
  • Frequent mood swings or anger
  • Trouble coping with stress

For some adults, ADHD diagnosis brings a sense of relief. More specifically, an ADHD diagnosis helps them better understand why they have been experiencing so many issues. It also offers them hope through therapy and medication.

Still, the best treatment for ADHD is still under debate. Adult ADHD treatments are similar childhood ADHD treatments – i.e. ADHD medications like stimulants, counseling (psychotherapy), and treatment for any mental health conditions. A combination of therapy and medication is often the most effective treatment. And, while not the cause, a number of mental health conditions can occur with ADHD.

Common co-occuring conditions include the following:

  • Mood Disorders: Adults with ADHD may also struggle with mood disorders like clinical depression, bipolar disorder, etc. ADHD does not directly cause mood disorders, however, it may worsen or trigger them – in some people.
  • Anxiety: It is common for adults with ADHD to experience anxiety. ADHD can lead to excessive worrying and “nervousness.” Fretting over one’s ADHD symptoms can trigger or increase anxiety – in some people. Therefore, anxiety must be managed, in conjunction, with ADHD symptoms for treatment to be effective.
  • Personality Disorders: Adults with ADHD have a higher risk of personality disorders like narcissistic, histrionic, or borderline personality disorders.

If you or your child suffers from ADHD, it is imperative to seek treatment. Remember that with medication, psychotherapy, and/or behavioral training, individuals (children and adults) can learn how to better manage the symptoms, so they can live happy and successful lives.

Finding a Good Therapist For Me or My Child

The prognosis of ADHD with treatment is good. Finding the right therapist for you or your child may take a bit of trial, but TherapyTribe Directory makes it easy to search and review a variety of qualified ADHD Therapist offering both in-person and online therapy sessions. You may want to reach out to several therapist in order to learn more about their ADHD treatment modalities and evaluate if they are the right fit for you or your child.

New ADHD Treatment Trials and Studies

ADHD treatment trials and studies are constantly being conducted, which means that new treatments are constantly being created and put on the market for ADHD. Almost every year or few years there is a new possible treatment for ADHD. Listed below are some of the newest treatments approved for ADHD. 

  1. eTNS: In April 2022, eTNS, the first device to treat ADHD in children, received clearance from the ADHD. eTNS stands for external trigeminal nerve stimulation. Researchers suggest that eTNs may be an alternative treatment for more than 6+ million American children with ADHD.
  2. Xelstrym: In March 2022, The FDA approved Xelstrym (dextroamphetamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant prescription medicine to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children at least 6 years old. Xelstrym may help increase attention and decrease impulsiveness and hyperactivity. The FDA has deemed Xelstrym a federally-controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or lead to addiction.
  3. Azstarys: In March 2021, the PDA approved the combination serdexmethylphenidate / dexmethylphenidate (Azstarys) for the treatment of ADHD in people six years of age and older. Azstarys may help increase attention and decrease impulsiveness and hyperactivity. The FDA has deemed Azstarys a federally-controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or lead to addiction.
  4. Qelbree: In 2021 Qelbree, a non-stimulant medication, was FDA-approved for children with ADHD, and in 2022, it was FDA-approved for adults with the disorder. Researchers suggest that Qelbree (viloxazine) is an effective ADHD treatment due to its ability to reduce ADHD symptoms like inattention, fidgeting, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.  
  5. Jornay PM: In 2019, the FDA approved Jornay PM for the treatment of ADHD in both children and adults. Jornay PM is designed to improve concentration, focus, memory, emotional control, and behavior. Keep in mind, however, that Jornay PM contains the same active ingredients as Ritalin and Daytrana. The FDA has deemed Jornay PM a federally-controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or lead to addiction. Jornay PM is taken at night, so that by the time the person awakens the medication is already working.
  6. Adhansia XR: In 2019, Adhansia XR, another stimulant, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of both children and adults with ADHD. Adhansia XR is available in extended-release capsules, and offers the highest dosage strengths on the market.
  7. Catecholaminergic Reuptake Inhibitors & Releasing Agents or Selective Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors: Researchers have recently found that catecholaminergic reuptake Inhibitors & releasing agents or selective-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors may be an effective ADHD treatment. However, more research is needed to determine the overall effects of these inhibitors in the treatment of ADHD. 
Post-Pandemic Impact on ADHD Individuals & Diagnosis

The coronavirus pandemic brought many changes to almost everyone. These changes affected people in different ways. For some people, COVID-19 caused a loss of employment and isolation, and triggered or worsened depression, anxiety, fear, doubt, and uncertainty, yet, for others, like those struggling with ADHD, the pandemic was a nightmare that lasted years. Some may argue that children with ADHD suffered the most during the pandemic. The lives of children were disrupted in profound ways. 

The stability and carefree life that comes with being a child was suddenly stripped away from them. Their schedules were interrupted, they were removed from their schools, they were forced to wear masks, and stay 6ft. away from other people, and for a while, they could not even go outside for fear of contracting the norovirus through the air. Long gone were the days of playing with other kids at school or at the playground, participating in contact sports, or simply hanging out with friends at the mall, arcade, or each other’s houses. Life simply wasn’t the same. 

More so, parents’ fears, worries, and concerns of their children contracting the virus, increased their children’s stress and anxiety, which in the case of ADHD children only made things worse. Researchers found that children with ADHD experienced a decline in their behavior and well-being during the pandemic. Lockdowns and homeschool took these children away from familiar people and environments, so it makes sense that the seclusion, boredom, anxiety, and frustration caused children with ADHD to exhibit poor behavior. 

The pandemic also made it difficult for doctors to properly diagnose children with ADHD because most visits during that time occurred through telehealth, and because parents afraid of their children getting COVID put off taking their children to for an ADHD evaluation. As a result, some kids with the disorder did not receive a diagnosis and treatment until much later. Because doctors were not getting to see the children in-person, some children with ADHD were misdiagnosed as “just being restless children,” while others were diagnosed with ADHD and did not have. These children received the diagnosis because their symptoms resemble ADHD, but were “just being restless children,” in reality.  

The same could be said for adolescents and young adults, especially college kids. Because some colleges/universities and businesses were closed down, many young people with ADHD struggled with anxiety and stress at not being able to engage in their normal routines. People with ADHD struggle with impulsivity and hyperactivity so being stuck at home due to a layoff or because their college/university closed only heighten these ADHD symptoms, causing emotional distress, anxiety, stress, frustration, restlessness, depression, and anger, in some cases. 

These individuals had no outlet, leading to impulsive behaviors and negative emotions. Researchers found that the biggest complaints of people with ADHD during the pandemic was boredom, a lack of motivation, social isolation, and an inability to engage in online learning (for students). Researchers also found that telehealth and working from home also posed problems for people with ADHD, during the pandemic. People with ADHD tend to be social beings, so being cooped up and away from others was especially taxing for these individuals.


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